Established May 14, 1888 with its county seat at Moscow. This area was first formed as Lah-Toh County in 1864 with Coeur d'Alene as the county seat, in 1867 the name Lah-Toh was dropped when the area was placed in Nez Perce County. In 1888 the U. S. Congress created the county as we know it, the 16th Idaho county and the only Idaho county created by Congress. Named for Latah Creek, which drains the northwest corner. The name is Nez Perce and means "the place of pine trees and pestle," because the Indians found stones here suitable for pulverizing camas roots and shade under the pine trees in which to work.